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Project Overview and Role
Background:National Social Protection Policy Framework
Health Policy Plus (HP+) Cambodia, with financial support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), is providing technical support to the Royal Government of Cambodia to implement its National Social Protection Policy Framework (NSPPF). The Framework establishes the reduction of poverty, vulnerability, and inequality as explicit policy goals. One of the core functions of the National Social Protection Council (NSPC) is to "connect and harmonize the social assistance system with the social insurance system, in order to ensure their consistency and to put additional actions into a unified vision of social protection system". In addition, the NSPPF provides a "framework to link and complement the two systems"; and, its action plan identifies the need to complete a feasibility study for the implementation of benefits as a family package. To support these aims, the General Secretariat for the NSPC requires the completion of a study to assess the linking and leveraging opportunities in general, and more specifically to support implementation of the family package. The outcome of this work will be appropriate, specific, and actionable social protection policy recommendations to inform scheme design, strategic planning, related regulation, and coordination. Linking and leveraging Social Protection Programs
Social protection investments can achieve a greater impact through linking and leveraging (Bolling and van Wittmarschen 2015) (Zimmerman and Holmes 2015)(Overseas Development Institute 2007)(Alderman 2015).
Linking refers to the bundling of interventions to enhance protection against multiple risks. There is evidence demonstrating that linking social protection schemes yields more than the sum of their individual effects (Shigute, et al. 2019). Cambodia uses an ID poor system to target social services to the poorest of the poor. This system enables programs from different sectors to reach the same identified beneficiaries (White Kaba, et al. 2018). Social protection schemes may provide goods and services that are complementary such as providing health care and vocational training to disabled children, food to TB patients, or life skills for adolescents living with HIV (Qiu, Jessani and Bennett 2018). There is also evidence demonstrating that social protection programs can sustainably move people out of poverty only when integrated into broader livelihood promotion and rural development strategies (FAO 2018). As Cambodia's social protection schemes expand, it will become increasingly important to coordinate the linking of benefits and other development initiatives.
Leveraging refers to the use of cash or in-kind benefits to promote and/or incentivize vulnerability-reducing practices such as school attendance, health service utilization, and community engagement. For example, conditional cash transfer (CCT) schemes, such as Cambodia's new grant for pregnant women and children under two years of age, directly incentivize health service utilization through the payment of cash. Other countries have conditioned social assistance benefits on school attendance or vocational training of one adult member of the beneficiary's household such as in the Dominican Republic. In Mexico, the national Seguro Popular health insurance program leverages health insurance premium exemptions for lower income families to encourage participation in health-promotion activities (Han 2012) (Knaul, et al. 2012).
The General Secretariat for the National Social Protection Council, it is well positioned to identify such opportunities and advocate for strategic, coordinated approach.
Description of Work:
A local consultant is required to complete an analysis of SP policies, strategies, and schemes. The analysis will identify linking and leveraging opportunities among the SP schemes with the aim of advancing the strategic implementation of the SP program as a family package as envisaged in the NSSPF. Specifically, the analysis will include:
- a document review, stakeholder consultations as identified by the General Secretariat of the NSPC, and validation sessions;
- an inventory of benefits, target groups, and programs under each SP scheme;
- a crosswalk to map similar or related scheme elements and identify/illustrate opportunities for linkages and leveraging;
- a best-practices and evidence review of SP linkages and leveraging using international and national literature and reports with a summary (with references) vis-a-vis the inventory;
- community and stakeholder consultations with potentially effected beneficiary groups to brainstorm potential linkages as well as validate possible policy proposals;
- a summary report, 2-3 social protection policy briefs, and a presentation that summarize the methods, inventory, crosswalk, evidence, best practices, potential application within the Cambodian context, recommendations, and the advantages/disadvantages.
This work is initially expected to require 41 days Level of Effort (LOE) over from o/a June 1- o/a August 30, 2019.
Policy development should start from the needs, realities and priorities of the groups intended to benefit from social protection. (Norton, Conway and Foster 2001)
# Primary activities
1 Stakeholder consultations, define the level of detail required for the inventory, validation sessions, progress reporting
2 Document review, SP schemes/benefits inventory, and crosswalk
3 International best practices review, mapping against SP schemes
4 Community consultations and summary draft report
5 Report writing and revisions: Draft report (10-pages) excluding annexes (i.e. schemes/benefits inventory, best practices review detail, community consultations report, etc.)
6 Brief writing and revisions: 2-3 Social Protection policy briefs, 1 brief will focus on implementing the family package, other topics such as child disability to be determined based on the findings and recommendations.
7 Report preparation and revision. Final report and PowerPoint presentation
Up to 41 days
- Experience with planning, organizing and completing document reviews, assessments, analyses, and/or evaluation in the social protection and/or social development sector
- Experience with the development of strategy/policy recommendations in the social protection and/or social development sector
- Proven ability to produce reports and other work products in English
- Experience working with the Royal Government of Cambodia and international organizations
- Native Cambodian